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A common framework for single-molecule localization using sequential structured illumination

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posted on 2023-01-12, 13:55 authored by Luciano A. Masullo, Lucía F. Lopez, Fernando D. Stefani
Localization of single fluorescent molecules is key for physicochemical and biophysical measurements such as single-molecule tracking and super-resolution imaging by single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM). Recently a series of methods have been developed in which the localization precision is enhanced by interrogating the molecular position with a sequence of spatially modulated patterns of light. Among them, the MINFLUX technique outstands for achieving a ~10-fold improvement compared to wide-field camera-based single-molecule localization, reaching ~1-2 nm localization precision at moderate photon counts. Here, we present a common mathematical framework for this type of measurement that allows a fair comparison between reported methods and facilitates the design and evaluation of new methods. With it, we benchmark all reported methods for single-molecule localization using sequential structured illumination, including long-established methods such as orbital tracking, along with two new proposed methods: orbital tracking and raster scanning with a minimum of intensity.

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