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A full degree-of-freedom photonic crystal spatial light modulator

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Version 2 2023-06-08, 12:54
Version 1 2023-01-10, 02:33
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posted on 2023-06-08, 12:54 authored by Christopher L. Panuski, Ian R. Christen, Momchil Minkov, Cole J. Brabec, Sivan Trajtenberg-Mills, Alexander D. Griffiths, Jonathan J. D. McKendry, Gerald L. Leake, Daniel J. Coleman, Cung Tran, Jeffrey St Louis, John Mucci, Cameron Horvath, Jocelyn N. Westwood-Bachman, Stefan F. Preble, Martin D. Dawson, Michael J. Strain, Michael L. Fanto, Dirk R. Englund
Harnessing the full complexity of optical fields requires complete control of all degrees-of-freedom within a region of space and time -- an open goal for present-day spatial light modulators (SLMs), active metasurfaces, and optical phased arrays. Here, we solve this challenge with a programmable photonic crystal cavity array enabled by four key advances: (i) near-unity vertical coupling to high-finesse microcavities through inverse design, (ii) scalable fabrication by optimized, 300 mm full-wafer processing, (iii) picometer-precision resonance alignment using automated, closed-loop "holographic trimming", and (iv) out-of-plane cavity control via a high-speed micro-LED array. Combining each, we demonstrate near-complete spatiotemporal control of a 64-resonator, two-dimensional SLM with nanosecond- and femtojoule-order switching. Simultaneously operating wavelength-scale modes near the space- and time-bandwidth limits, this work opens a new regime of programmability at the fundamental limits of multimode optical control.

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