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All-optical helicity-independent switching state diagram in GdFeCo alloys

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posted on 2023-11-30, 21:06 authored by Jiaqi Wei, Boyu Zhang, Michel Hehn, Wei Zhang, Gregory Malinowski, Yong Xu, Weisheng Zhao, Stéphane Mangin
Ultra-fast magnetization switching induced by a single femtosecond laser pulse, under no applied magnetic field has attracted a lot of attention during the last 10 years because of its high potential for low energy and ultra-fast memory applications. Single-pulse helicity-independent switching has mostly been demonstrated for Gd based materials. It is now important to optimize the pulse duration and the energy needed to switch a GdFeCo magnet depending on the alloy thickness, concentration. Here we experimentally report state diagrams showing the magnetic state obtained after one single pulse depending on the laser pulse duration and fluence for various GdFeCo thin films with different compositions and thicknesses. We demonstrate that these state diagrams share similar characteristics: the fluence window for switching narrows for longer pulse duration and for the considered pulse duration range the critical fluence for single pulse switching increases linearly as a function of the pulse duration while the critical fluence required for creating a multidomain state remains almost constant. Calculations based on the atomistic spin model qualitatively reproduce the experimental state diagrams and their evolution. By studying the effect of the composition and the thickness on the state diagram, we demonstrated that the best energy efficiency and the longest pulse duration for switching are obtained for concentration around the magnetic compensation.



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