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Angular deviation and diffraction efficiency of Littrow-configuration ECDL for three-dimensional diffraction

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posted on 2023-09-08, 16:00 authored by Biao Chen, Y. Liu, Daping He, He Chen, Kaikai Huang, Xuanhui Lu
We consider in this paper the angular deviation and diffraction efficiency of the reflection gratings in Littrow-configuration for applications of external cavity diode laser (ECDL) using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method. We consider the three-dimensional diffraction case in general, where the incidence plane is un-parallel with the grating vector (i.e. conical diffraction). The angular tolerance of arbitrary gratings under plane and conical diffraction are thus derived and presented. A typical blazed grating is chosen as an example to calculate its diffraction efficiency (DE) using RCWA. {Furthermore}, we point out that the angular tolerance and reflection efficiency can be improved if the appropriate parameter settings are selected for Littrow-configuration ECDL, including incidence angle, diffraction order, grating period and blazed angle. Otherwise, a tiny slanting angle of the grating vector deviated from the incidence plane will {deviate the feedback light away from} entering the LD-chip and halt laser oscillation in the external cavity. Finally, a general rule for the parameter settings in Littrow-configuration is provided as a benchmark.

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