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Apparatus for high-precision angle-resolved reflection spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region

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posted on 2023-11-30, 19:44 authored by Takashi Kuroda, Siti Chalimah, Yuanzhao Yao, Naoki Ikeda, Yoshimasa Sugimoto, Kazuaki Sakoda
Fourier transform (FT) spectroscopy is a versatile technique for studying the infrared (IR) optical response of solid-, liquid-, and gas-phase samples. In standard FT-IR spectrometers, a light beam passing through a Michelson interferometer is focused onto a sample with condenser optics. This design enables us to examine relatively small samples, but the large solid angle of the focused infrared beam makes it difficult to analyze angle-dependent characteristics. Here we design and construct a high-precision angle-resolved reflection setup compatible with a commercial FT-IR spectrometer. Our setup converts the focused beam into an achromatically collimated beam with an angle dispersion as high as 0.25$^\circ$. The setup also permits us to scan the incident angle over ~8$^\circ$ across zero (normal incidence). The beam diameter can be reduced to ~1 mm, which is limited by the sensitivity of an HgCdTe detector. The small-footprint apparatus is easily installed in an FT-IR sample chamber. As a demonstration of the capability of our reflection setup we measure the angle-dependent mid-infrared reflectance of two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs and determine the in-plane dispersion relation in the vicinity of the $\Gamma$ point in momentum space. We observe the formation of photonic Dirac cones, i.e., linear dispersions with an accidental degeneracy at $\Gamma$, in an ideally designed sample. Our apparatus is useful for characterizing various systems that have a strong in-plane anisotropy, including photonic crystal waveguides, plasmonic metasurfaces, and molecular crystalline films.

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