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Artificial intelligence for online characterization of ultrashort X-ray free-electron laser pulses

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Version 2 2023-06-08, 12:48
Version 1 2023-01-11, 17:00
posted on 2023-06-08, 12:48 authored by Kristina Dingel, Thorsten Otto, Lutz Marder, Lars Funke, Arne Held, Sara Savio, Andreas Hans, Gregor Hartmann, David Meier, Jens Viefhaus, Bernhard Sick, Arno Ehresmann, Markus Ilchen, Wolfram Helml
X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) as the world's brightest light sources provide ultrashort X-ray pulses with a duration typically in the order of femtoseconds. Recently, they have approached and entered the attosecond regime, which holds new promises for single-molecule imaging and studying nonlinear and ultrafast phenomena such as localized electron dynamics. The technological evolution of XFELs toward well-controllable light sources for precise metrology of ultrafast processes has been, however, hampered by the diagnostic capabilities for characterizing X-ray pulses at the attosecond frontier. In this regard, the spectroscopic technique of photoelectron angular streaking has successfully proven how to non-destructively retrieve the exact time-energy structure of XFEL pulses on a single-shot basis. By using artificial intelligence techniques, in particular convolutional neural networks, we here show how this technique can be leveraged from its proof-of-principle stage toward routine diagnostics even at high-repetition-rate XFELs, thus enhancing and refining their scientific accessibility in all related disciplines.



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