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Bessel-beam direct-write of the etch-mask in a nano-film of alumina for high-efficiency Si solar cells

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posted on 2024-03-23, 16:00 authored by Tomas Katkus, Soon Hock Ng, Haoran Mu, Nguyen Hoai An Le, Dominyka Stonyte, Zahra Khajehsaeidimahabadi, Gediminas Seniutinas, Justas Baltrukonis, Orestas Ulcinas, Mindaugas Mikutis, Vytautas Sabonis, Yoshiaki Nishijima, Michael Rienacker, Jan Krugener, Robby Peibst, Sajeev John, Saulius Juodkazis
Large surface area applications such as high-efficiency > 26% solar cells require surface patterning with 1-10 micrometers periodic patterns at high fidelity over 1-10 cm^2 areas (before up scaling to 1 m^2) to perform at, or exceed, the Lambertian (ray optics) limit of light trapping. Here we show a pathway to high-resolution sub-1 micrometer etch mask patterning by ablation using direct femtosecond laser writing performed at room conditions (without the need for a vacuum-based lithography approach). A Bessel beam was used to alleviate the required high surface tracking tolerance for ablation of 0.3-0.8 micrometer diameter holes in ~40 nm alumina Al2O3-mask at high writing speed, 7.5 cm/s; a patterning rate 1 cm^2 per 20 min. The plasma etching protocol was optimised for a zero-mesa formation of photonic crystal (PhC) trapping structures and smooth surfaces at the nanoscale level. Scaling up in area and throughput of the demonstrated approach is outlined.

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