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Bipartite communication game-based empirical demonstration of non-trivial and universal non-contextuality without unphysical idealizations

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posted on 2023-08-10, 08:40 authored by Yong-jian Gu, Xuan Fan, Ya Xiao
Universal contextuality is the leading notion of non-classicality even for single systems, showing its advantage as a more general quantum correlation than Bell non-locality, as well as preparation contextuality. However, a loophole-free experimental demonstration of universal contextuality at least requires that both operational inequivalence and compatibility loopholes are closed, which have never been simultaneously achieved to date. In our work, we experimentally test universal contextuality through (3,3) and (4,3) communication games, simultaneously restoring operational equivalence and circumventing the compatibility loophole. Our result exhibits the violation of universal non-contextuality bound by 97 standard deviations in (3,3) scenario, and 107 deviations in (4,3) scenario. Notably there are states which exhibit locality but reveal universal contextuality in both two scenarios. In addition, our result shows that universal contextuality is more general than preparation contextuality in (3,3) scenario, while equivalent to preparation contextuality in (4,3) scenario.


Funder Name

Ocean University of China (No. 861901013107); Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (No. ZR2021ZD19); National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. U19A2075,No. 12004358); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 202041012,No. 841912027)

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