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Boosting photonic quantum computation with moderate nonlinearity

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posted on 2023-11-30, 20:57 authored by Adi Pick, Elisha Siddiqui-Matekole, Ziv Aqua, Gabriel Guendelman, Ofer Firstenberg, Jonathan P. Dowling, Barak Dayan
Photonic measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) is a promising route towards fault-tolerant universal quantum computing. A central challenge in this effort is the huge overhead in the resources required for the construction of large photonic clusters using probabilistic linear-optics gates. Although strong single-photon nonlinearity ideally enables deterministic construction of such clusters, it is challenging to realise in a scalable way. Here we explore the prospects of using moderate nonlinearity (with conditional phase shifts smaller than $\pi$) to boost photonic quantum computing and significantly reduce its resources overhead. The key element in our scheme is a nonlinear router that preferentially directs photonic wavepackets to different output ports depending on their intensity. As a relevant example, we analyze the nonlinearity provided by Rydberg blockade in atomic ensembles, in which the trade-off between the nonlinearity and the accompanying loss is well understood. We present protocols for efficient Bell measurement and GHZ-state preparation -- both key elements in the construction of cluster states, as well as for the CNOT gate and quantum factorization. Given the large number of entangling operations involved in fault-tolerant MBQC, the increase in success probability provided by our protocols already at moderate nonlinearity can result in a dramatic reduction in the required resources.

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