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Can Large Language Models Learn the Physics of Metamaterials? An Empirical Study with ChatGPT

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posted on 2024-04-26, 16:00 authored by Darui Lu, Yang Deng, Jordan M. Malof, Willie J. Padilla
Large language models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT, Gemini, LlaMa, and Claude are trained on massive quantities of text parsed from the internet and have shown a remarkable ability to respond to complex prompts in a manner often indistinguishable from humans. We present a LLM fine-tuned on up to 40,000 data that can predict electromagnetic spectra over a range of frequencies given a text prompt that only specifies the metasurface geometry. Results are compared to conventional machine learning approaches including feed-forward neural networks, random forest, linear regression, and K-nearest neighbor (KNN). Remarkably, the fine-tuned LLM (FT-LLM) achieves a lower error across all dataset sizes explored compared to all machine learning approaches including a deep neural network. We also demonstrate the LLM's ability to solve inverse problems by providing the geometry necessary to achieve a desired spectrum. LLMs possess some advantages over humans that may give them benefits for research, including the ability to process enormous amounts of data, find hidden patterns in data, and operate in higher-dimensional spaces. We propose that fine-tuning LLMs on large datasets specific to a field allows them to grasp the nuances of that domain, making them valuable tools for research and analysis.



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