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Certified quantum random number generator based on single-photon entanglement

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posted on 2023-01-11, 22:29 authored by Nicolò Leone, Stefano Azzini, Sonia Mazzucchi, Valter Moretti, Lorenzo Pavesi
Quantum entanglement represents an ideal resource to guarantee the security of random numbers employed in many scientific and cryptographic applications. However, entanglement-based certified random number generators are particularly challenging to implement. Here, we demonstrate a new certified quantum random number generator based on momentum-polarization entangled single photon states. The use of single photon entanglement allows employing an attenuated laser source and a simple setup where only linear optical components are utilized. For the latter, a semi-device-independent modeling of the photonic quantum random number generator is developed, which certifies a minimum entropy of $(2.5\pm 0.5)\%$, corresponding to a generation rate of 4.4 kHz. At the expenses of a higher level of trust in the system, the certified minimum entropy can be increased to $(30.1 \pm0.5 )\%$, implying a generation rate of 52.7 kHz. Our results show that a simple optical implementation combined with an accurate modeling provide an entanglement-based high-security quantum random number generator using imperfect devices.



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