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Complete spatiotemporal and polarization characterization of ultrafast vector beams

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posted on 2023-11-30, 19:22 authored by Benjamín Alonso, Ignacio Lopez-Quintas, Warein Holgado, Rokas Drevinskas, Peter G. Kazansky, Carlos Hernández-García, Íñigo J. Sola
The use of structured ultrashort pulses with coupled spatiotemporal properties is emerging as a key tool for ultrafast manipulation. Ultrafast vector beams are opening exciting opportunities in different fields such as microscopy, time-resolved imaging, nonlinear optics, particle acceleration or attosecond science. Here, we implement a technique for the full characterization of structured time-dependent polarization light waveforms with spatiotemporal resolution, using a compact twofold spectral interferometer, based on in-line bulk interferometry and fibre-optic coupler assisted interferometry. We measure structured infrared femtosecond vector beams, including radially polarized beams and complex-shaped beams exhibiting both temporal and spatial evolving polarization. Our measurements confirm that light waveforms with polarization evolving at the micrometer and femtosecond scales can be achieved through the use of structured waveplates and polarization gates. This new scale of measurement achieved will open the way to predict, check and optimize applications of structured vector beams at the femtosecond and micrometer scales.

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