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Composite picosecond control of atomic state through a nanofiber interface

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posted on 2023-01-10, 02:29 authored by Yudi Ma, Ruijuan Liu, Lingjing Ji, Liyang Qiu, Saijun Wu, Dianqiang Su, Yanting Zhao, Ni Yao, Wei Fang
Atoms are ideal quantum sensors and quantum light emitters. Interfacing atoms with nanophotonic devices promises novel nanoscale sensing and quantum optical functionalities. But precise optical control of atomic states in these devices is challenged by the spatially varying light-atom coupling strength, generic to nanophotonic. We demonstrate numerically that despite the inhomogenuity, composite picosecond optical pulses with optimally tailored phases are able to evanescently control the atomic electric dipole transitions nearly perfectly, with $f>99\%$ fidelity across large enough volumes for {\it e.g.} controlling cold atoms confined in near-field optical lattices. Our proposal is followed by a proof-of-principle demonstration with a $^{85}$Rb vapor -- optical nanofiber interface, where the excitation by an $N=3$ sequence of guided picosecond D1 control reduces the absorption of a co-guided nanosecond D2 probe by up to $\sim70\%$. The close-to-ideal performance is corroborated by comparing the absorption data across the parameter space with first-principle modeling of the mesoscopic atomic vapor response. Extension of the composite technique to $N\geq 5$ appears highly feasible to support arbitrary local control of atomic dipoles with exquisite precision. This unprecedented ability would allow error-resilient atomic spectroscopy and open up novel nonlinear quantum optical research with atom-nanophotonic interfaces.

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