Controlling Floquet states on ultrashort time scales
preprintposted on 2023-06-08, 12:54 authored by Matteo Lucchini, Fabio Medeghini, Yingxuan Wu, Federico Vismarra, Rocío Borrego-Varillas, Aurora Crego, Fabio Frassetto, Luca Poletto, Shunsuke A. Sato, Hannes Hübener, Umberto De Giovannini, Ángel Rubio, Mauro Nisoli
The advent of ultrafast laser science offers the unique opportunity to combine Floquet engineering with extreme time resolution, further pushing the optical control of matter into the petahertz domain. However, what is the shortest driving pulse for which Floquet states can be realised remains an unsolved matter, thus limiting the application of Floquet theory to pulses composed by many optical cycles. Here we ionized Ne atoms with few-femtosecond pulses of selected time duration and show that a Floquet state can be established already within 10 cycles of the driving field. For shorter pulses, down to 2 cycles, the finite lifetime of the driven state can still be explained using an analytical model based on Floquet theory. By demonstrating that the population of the Floquet sidebands can be controlled not only with the driving laser pulse intensity and frequency, but also by its duration, our results add a new lever to the toolbox of Floquet engineering.