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Criticality-Based Quantum Metrology in the Presence of Decoherence

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posted on 2023-01-10, 02:51 authored by Wan-Ting He, Cong-Wei Lu, Yi-Xuan Yao, Hai-Yuan Zhu, Qing Ai
Quantum metrology aims to use quantum resources to improve the precision of measurement. Quantum criticality has been presented as a novel and efficient resource. Generally, protocols of criticality-based quantum metrology often work without decoherence. In this paper, we address the issue whether the divergent feature of the inverted variance is indeed realizable in the presence of noise when approaching the QPT. Taking the quantum Rabi model (QRM) as an example, we obtain the analytical result for the inverted variance. We show that the inverted variance may be convergent in time due to the noise. When approaching the critical point, the maximum inverted variance demonstrates a power-law increase with the exponent -1.2, of which the absolute value is smaller than that for the noise-free case, i.e., 2. We also observe a power-law dependence of the maximum inverted variance on the relaxation rate and the temperature. Since the precision of the metrology is very sensitive to the noise, as a remedy, we propose performing the squeezing operation on the initial state to improve the precision under decoherence. In addition, we also investigate the criticality-based metrology under the influence of the two-photon relaxation. Contrary to the single-photon relaxation, the quantum dynamics of the inverted variance shows a completely-different behavior. It does not oscillate with the same frequency with respect to the re-scaled time for different dimensionless coupling strengths. Strikingly, although the maximum inverted variance still manifests a power-law dependence on the energy gap, the exponent is positive and depends on the dimensionless coupling strength. This observation implies that the criticality may not enhance but weaken the precision in the presence of two-photon relaxation. It can be well described by the non-linearity introduced by the two-photon relaxation.



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