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Devil's Staircases in Continuous Systems with Modulated Forcing
preprintposted on 2023-11-30, 18:21 authored by Benjamin Lingnau, Kevin Shortiss, Fabien Dubois, Frank H. Peters, Bryan Kelleher
The discrete circle map is the archetypical example of a driven periodic system, showing a complex resonance structure under a change of the forcing frequency known as the devil's staircase. Adler's equation can be seen as the direct continuous equivalent of the circle map, describing locking effects in periodic systems with continuous forcing. This type of locking produces a single fundamental resonance tongue without higher order resonances, and a devil's staircase is not observed. We show that, with harmonically modulated forcing, nonlinear oscillations close to a Hopf bifurcation generically reproduce the devil's staircase even in the continuous case. Experimental results on a semiconductor laser driven by a modulated optical signal show excellent agreement with our theoretical predictions. The locking appears as a modulation of the oscillation amplitude as well as the angular oscillation frequency. Our results show that by proper implementation of an external drive, additional regions of stable frequency locking can be introduced in systems which originally show only a single Adler-type resonance tongue.