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Direct (3+1)D laser writing of graded-index optical elements
preprintposted on 2023-01-11, 22:56 authored by Xavier Porte, Niyazi Ulas Dinc, Johnny Moughames, Giulia Panusa, Caroline Juliano, Muamer Kadic, Christophe Moser, Daniel Brunner, Demetri Psaltis
We propose single-step additive fabrication of graded-index optical elements by introducing the light exposure as the additional dimension to three-dimensional (3D) laser writing, hence (3+1)D writing. We use a commercial printer and photoresist to realize the proposed single step fabrication method that can be swiftly adopted for research and engineering. After presenting the characterization of the graded-index profiles via basic structures, we demonstrate two different optical devices: volume holograms that are superimposed using angular and peristrophic multiplexing, and optical waveguides with well-defined refractive index profiles. In the latter, we precisely control the propagating modes via tuning the (3+1)D-printed waveguide parameters and report step-index and graded-index core-cladding transitions.