Doubly resonant photoacoustic spectroscopy: ultra-high sensitivity meets ultra-wide dynamic range
preprintposted on 2023-01-10, 02:32 authored by Zhen Wang, Qiang Wang, Hui Zhang, Simone Borri, Iacopo Galli, Angelo Sampaolo, Pietro Patimisco, Vincenzo Luigi Spagnolo, Paolo De Natale, Wei Ren
Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) based gas sensors with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, low cost, and small footprint are desirable across a broad range of applications in energy, environment, safety, and public health. However, most works have focused on either acoustic resonator to enhance acoustic wave or optical resonator to enhance optical wave. Herein, we develop a gas sensor based on doubly resonant PAS in which the acoustic and optical waves are simultaneously enhanced using combined optical and acoustic resonators in a centimeter-long configuration. Not only the lower detection limit is enhanced by the double standing waves, but also the upper detection limit is expanded due to the short resonators. As an example, we developed a sensor by detecting acetylene (C2H2), achieving a noise equivalent absorption of 5.7*10-13 cm-1 and a dynamic range of eight orders. Compared to the state-of-the-art PAS gas sensors, the developed sensor increases the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude and extends the dynamic range by three orders of magnitude. Besides, a laser-cavity-molecule locking strategy is proposed to provide additional flexibility of fast gas detection.