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Efficient wide-field FLIM
preprintposted on 2023-11-30, 06:44 authored by Adam J. Bowman, Brannon B. Klopfer, Thomas Juffmann, Mark A. Kasevich
Nanosecond temporal resolution enables new methods for wide-field imaging like time-of-flight, gated detection, and fluorescence lifetime. The optical efficiency of existing approaches, however, presents challenges for low-light applications common to fluorescence microscopy and single-molecule imaging. We demonstrate the use of Pockels cells for wide-field image gating with nanosecond temporal resolution and high photon collection efficiency. Two temporal frames are obtained by combining a Pockels cell with a pair of polarizing beam-splitters. We show multi-label fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), single-molecule lifetime spectroscopy, and fast single-frame FLIM at the camera frame rate with $10^3 - 10^5$ times higher throughput than single photon counting. Finally, we demonstrate a space-to-time image multiplexer using a re-imaging optical cavity with a tilted mirror to extend the Pockels cell technique to multiple temporal frames. These methods enable nanosecond imaging with standard optical systems and sensors, opening a new temporal dimension for low-light microscopy.