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Electrically Programmable Pixelated Graphene-Integrated Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Coherent Mid-Infrared Emission

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posted on 2024-03-14, 16:00 authored by Xiu Liu, Yibai Zhong, Zexiao Wang, Tianyi Huang, Sen Lin, Jingyi Zou, Haozhe Wang, Zhien Wang, Zhuo Li, Xiao Luo, Rui Cheng, Jiayu Li, Hyeong Seok Yun, Han Wang, Jing Kong, Xu Zhang, Sheng Shen
Active metasurfaces have recently emerged as compact, lightweight, and efficient platforms for dynamic control of electromagnetic fields and optical responses. However, the complexities associated with their post-fabrication tunability significantly hinder their widespread applications, especially for the mid-infrared range due to material scarcity and design intricacy. Here, we experimentally demonstrate highly dynamic, pixelated modulations of coherent mid-infrared emission based on an electrically programmable plasmonic metasurface integrated with graphene field effect transistors (Gr-FETs). The ultrabroad infrared transparency of graphene allows for free-form control over plasmonic meta-atoms, thus achieving coherent mid-infrared states across a broad range of wavelengths and polarizations. The spatial temperature modulation generated by Gr-FETs is effectively synergized with the emissivity control by the localized surface plasmon polaritons from gold nanoantennas. This integrated temperature-emissivity modulation of metasurfaces is systematically extended to form a pixelated 2D array, envisioning new approaches toward scalable 2D electrical wiring for densely packed, independently controlled pixels.

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