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Frequency mixing at an electromagnetically induced transparency like metasurface loaded with gas as a nonlinear element

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posted on 2023-11-29, 05:04 authored by Yasuhiro Tamayama, Takuya Yoshimura
Local electromagnetic field enhancement in resonant metamaterials is useful for efficient generation of nonlinear phenomena; however, the field enhancement is suppressed by losses of nonlinear elements in metamaterials. For overcoming this issue, we investigate the nonlinear response of an electromagnetically induced transparency like metasurface loaded with gas as the nonlinear element. To induce nonlinearity in the gas associated with discharges, an electromagnetic wave with a modulated amplitude is incident on the metasurface. The measured waveform and spectrum of the transmitted electromagnetic wave, along with light emission from the discharge microplasma, reveal that frequency mixing can occur on the metasurface. The parameter dependence of the conversion efficiency of the frequency mixing phenomenon shows that the efficiency is determined almost entirely by the ratio of the duration of microplasma generation to the modulation period of the incident wave amplitude. This result implies that the frequency mixing is derived from a binary change in the transmittance of the metasurface caused by the generation and quenching of the microplasma.

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