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Giant enhancement of third-harmonic generation in graphene-metal heterostructures
preprintposted on 2023-06-08, 12:55 authored by Irati Alonso Calafell, Lee A. Rozema, David Alcaraz Iranzo, Alessandro Trenti, Joel D. Cox, Avinash Kumar, Hlib Bieliaiev, Sebastian Nanot, Cheng Peng, Dmitri K. Efetov, Jin Yong Hong, Jing Kong, Dirk R. Englund, F. Javier García de Abajo, Frank H. L. Koppens, Philp Walther
Nonlinear nanophotonics leverages engineered nanostructures to funnel light into small volumes and intensify nonlinear optical processes with spectral and spatial control. Due to its intrinsically large and electrically tunable nonlinear optical response, graphene is an especially promising nanomaterial for nonlinear optoelectronic applications. Here we report on exceptionally strong optical nonlinearities in graphene-insulator-metal heterostructures, demonstrating an enhancement by three orders of magnitude in the third-harmonic signal compared to bare graphene. Furthermore, by increasing the graphene Fermi energy through an external gate voltage, we find that graphene plasmons mediate the optical nonlinearity and modify the third-harmonic signal. Our findings show that graphene-insulator-metal is a promising heterostructure for optically-controlled and electrically-tunable nano-optoelectronic components.