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Heavily doped zinc oxide with plasma frequencies in the telecommunication wavelength range
preprintposted on 2023-06-08, 12:59 authored by Alexander Koch, Hongyan Mei, Jura Rensberg, Martin Hafermann, Jad Salman, Chenghao Wan, Raymond Wambold, Daniel Blaschke, Heidemarie Schmidt, Jürgen Salfeld, Sebastian Geburt, Mikhail A. Kats, Carsten Ronning
We demonstrate heavy and hyper doping of ZnO by a combination of gallium (Ga) ion implantation using a focused ion beam (FIB) system and post-implantation laser annealing. Ion implantation allows for the incorporation of impurities with nearly arbitrary concentrations, and the laser-annealing process enables dopant activation close to or beyond the solid-solubility limit of Ga in ZnO. We achieved heavily doped ZnO:Ga with free-carrier concentrations of ~10^21 cm^(-3), resulting in a plasma wavelength of 1.02 um, which is substantially shorter than the telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 um. Thus, our approach enables the control of the plasma frequency of ZnO from the far infrared down to 1.02 um, providing a promising plasmonic material for applications in this regime.