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Heterogeneously integrated, superconducting silicon-photonic platform for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

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posted on 2023-11-30, 19:21 authored by Xiaodong Zheng, Peiyu Zhang, Renyou Ge, Liangliang Lu, Guanglong He, Qi Chen, Fangchao Qu, Labao Zhang, Xinlun Cai, Yanqing Lu, Shining Zhu, Peiheng Wu, Xiao-Song Ma
Integrated photonics provides a route both to miniaturize quantum key distribution (QKD) devices and to enhance their performance. A key element for achieving discrete-variable QKD is a single-photon detector. It is highly desirable to integrate detectors onto a photonic chip to enable the realization of practical and scalable quantum networks. We realize an integrated heterogeneous superconducting-silicon-photonic chip. Harnessing the unique high-speed feature of our optical waveguide-integrated superconducting detector, we perform the first optimal Bell-state measurement (BSM) of time-bin encoded qubits generated from two independent lasers. The optimal BSM enables an increased key rate of measurement-device-independent QKD, which is immune to all attacks against the detection system, and hence provides the basis for a QKD network with untrusted relays. Together with the time-multiplexed technique, we have enhanced the sifted key rate by almost one order of magnitude. With a 125 MHz clock rate, we obtain a secure key rate of 6.166 kbps over 24.0 dB loss, which is comparable to the state-of-the-art MDI-QKD experimental results with GHz clock rate. Combined with integrated QKD transmitters, a scalable, chip-based and cost-effective QKD network should become realizable in the near future.



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