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Highly Linear Nonmagnetic Circulator Enabled By A Temporal Nonreciprocal Phase Shifter
preprintposted on 2023-01-12, 13:37 authored by Sajjad Taravati, George V. Eleftheriades
Conventional circulators are made of magnetic ferrites and suffer from a cumbersome architecture, incompatibility with integrated circuit technology and inability for high frequency applications. To overcome these limitations, here we propose a lightweight low-profile non-magnetic circulator comprising a nonreciprocal time-varying phase shifter. This circulator is composing a nonreciprocal temporal phase shifter and two reciprocal delay-line-based phase shifters. The proposed nonreciprocal temporal phase shifter is based on the generation of time-harmonic signals, enforcing destructive interference for undesired time harmonics and constructive interference for desired time harmonics at different locations of the structure. Such a unique task is accomplished through two phase-engineered temporal loops. The phase and frequency of these two loops are governed by external signals with different phases, imparting an effective electronic angular momentum to the system. We observe large isolation level of greater than 32 dB, a P1dB of +31.7 dBm and IIP3 of +42.4 dBm. Furthermore, this circulator is endowed with a reconfigurable architecture and can be directly embedded in a conventional integrated circuit (IC) technology to realize a class of high power handling and linear IC circulators.