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Intensity Pattern Types in Broadband Fourier Domain Mode-Locked (FDML) Lasers Operating Beyond the Ultra-Stable Regime

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posted on 2023-11-30, 21:06 authored by Mark Schmidt, Christin Grill, Simon Lotz, Tom Pfeiffer, Robert Huber, Christian Jirauschek
We report on the formation of various intensity pattern types in detuned Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers and identify the corresponding operating conditions. Such patterns are a result of the complex laser dynamics and serve as an ideal tool for the study of the underlying physical processes as well as for model verification. By numerical simulation we deduce that the formation of patterns is related to the spectral position of the instantaneous laser lineshape with respect to the transmission window of the swept bandpass filter. The spectral properties of the lineshape are determined by a long-term accumulation of phase-offsets, resulting in rapid high-amplitude intensity fluctuations in the time domain due to the narrow intra-cavity bandpass filter and the fast response time of the semiconductor optical amplifier gain medium. Furthermore, we present the distribution of the duration of dips in the intensity trace by running the laser in the regime in which dominantly dips form, and give insight into their evolution over a large number of roundtrips.

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