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# Limitations in the $2D$ description of the electromagnetic waves propagation in thin dielectric and magnetic layers

preprint

posted on 2023-11-30, 17:12 authored by Tomasz Radozycki, Piotr BargielaThe propagation of electromagnetic waves trapped within dielectric and magnetic layers is considered. The description within the three-dimensional theory is compared with the simplified analysis in two dimensions. Two distinct media configurations with different topology are dealt with: a plane slab and a hollow cylinder. Choosing the appropriate values for the geometrical parameters (layer thickness, radius of the cylinder) and for the electromagnetic properties of the media one can trap exactly one mode corresponding to that obtained within the two-dimensional electromagnetism. However, the symmetry between electric and magnetic fields suggests, that the two versions of the simplified electromagnetism ought to be taken into account. Its usual form is incomplete to describe all modes. It is also found that there is a domain of optimal values of parameters for which the $2D$ model works relatively correctly. In the case of a cylindrical surface we observe, however, several differences which are attributed to the curvature of the layer, and which exclude the propagation of evanescent modes. The two-dimensional electrodynamics, whichever form used, turns out still too poor to describe the so called `hybrid modes' excited in a real layer. The obtained results can be important for proper description of the propagating waves within thin layers for which $3D$ approach is not available due to mathematical complexity, and reducing the layer to a lower-dimensional structure seems the only possible option.