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# Mathematical theory for electromagnetic scattering resonances and field enhancement in a subwavelength annular gap

preprint

posted on 2023-01-12, 15:38 authored by Junshan Lin, Wangtao Lu, Hai ZhangThis work presents a mathematical theory for electromagnetic scattering resonances in a subwavelength annular hole embedded in a metallic slab, with the annulus width $h\ll1$. The model is representative among many 3D subwavelength hole structures, which are able to induce resonant scattering of electromagnetic wave and the so-called extraordinary optical transmission. We develop a multiscale framework for the underlying scattering problem based upon a combination of the integral equation in the exterior domain and the waveguide mode expansion inside the tiny hole. The matching of the electromagnetic field over the hole aperture leads to a sequence of decoupled infinite systems, which are used to set up the resonance conditions for the scattering problem. By performing rigorous analysis for the infinite systems and the resonance conditions, we characterize all the resonances in a bounded domain over the complex plane. It is shown that the resonances are associated with the TE and TEM waveguide modes in the annular hole, and they are close to the real axis with the imaginary parts of order ${\cal O}(h)$. We also investigate the resonant scattering when an incident wave is present. It is proved that the electromagnetic field is amplified with order ${\cal O}(1/h)$ at the resonant frequencies that are associated with the TE modes in the annular hole. On the other hand, one particular resonance associated with the TEM mode can not be excited by a plane wave but can be excited with a near-field electric dipole source, leading to field enhancement of order ${\cal O}(1/h)$.