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Multi-Spectral Reflection Matrix for Ultra-Fast 3D Label-Free Microscopy
preprintposted on 2023-09-22, 16:00 authored by Paul Balondrade, Victor Barolle, Nicolas Guigui, Emeric Auriant, Nathan Rougier, Claude Boccara, Mathias Fink, Alexandre Aubry
Label-free microscopy exploits light scattering to obtain a three-dimensional image of biological tissues. However, light propagation is affected by aberrations and multiple scattering, which drastically degrade the image quality and limit the penetration depth. Multi-conjugate adaptive optics and time-gated matrix approaches have been developed to compensate for aberrations but the associated frame rate is extremely limited for 3D imaging. Here we develop a multi-spectral matrix approach to solve these fundamental problems. Based on an interferometric measurement of a polychromatic reflection matrix, the focusing process can be optimized in post-processing at any voxel by addressing independently each frequency component of the wave-field. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates the three-dimensional image of an opaque human cornea over a 0.1 mm^3-field-of-view at a 290 nm-resolution and a 1 Hz-frame rate. This work paves the way towards a fully-digital microscope allowing real-time, in-vivo, quantitative and deep inspection of tissues.