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# Noise-Modified, Paraxial Maxwell-Bloch Equations for X-ray Amplified Spontaneous Emission

preprint

posted on 2023-05-10, 16:01 authored by Jeong-Wan Park, Kwang-Je Kim, Ryan LindbergWe present a Hamiltonian-based, 3D theory in paraxial approximation for X-ray amplified spontaneous emission (or superfluorescence) pumped by X-ray free-electron laser. The seed field is included. The ensemble-averaged Heisenberg equations become Maxwell-Bloch equations if factorization of operator products is assumed and are adequate when the stimulated emission is dominant. The spontaneous emission is accounted for by adding a random noise term to the atomic coherence, the magnitude of which is uniquely determined from the fact that the expectation value of the normally-ordered product electric field operators associated with an atom does not factorize. The modified Maxwell-Bloch equation we developed reproduces the results of the previous 1D theory based on correlation functions.