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Nonequilibrium transport and the fluctuation theorem in the thermodynamic behaviors of nonlinear photonic systems

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posted on 2024-05-14, 16:00 authored by Yang Liu, Jincheng Lu, Zhongfei Xiong, Fan O. Wu, Demetrios Christodoulides, Yuntian Chen, Jian-Hua Jiang
Nonlinear multimode optical systems have attracted substantial attention due to their rich physical properties. Complex interplay between the nonlinear effects and mode couplings makes it difficult to understand the collective dynamics of photons. Recent studies show that such collective phenomena can be effectively described by a Rayleigh-Jeans thermodynamics theory which is a powerful tool for the study of nonlinear multimode photonic systems. These systems, in turn, offer a compelling platform for investigating fundamental issues in statistical physics, attributed to their tunability and the ability to access negative temperature regimes. However, to date, a theory for the nonequilibrium transport and fluctuations is yet to be established. Here, we employ the full counting statistics theory to study the nonequilibrium transport of particle and energy in nonlinear multimode photonic systems in both positive and negative temperature regimes. Furthermore, we discover that in situations involving two reservoirs of opposite temperatures and chemical potentials, an intriguing phenomenon known as the loop current effect can arise, wherein the current in the positive energy sector runs counter to that in the negative energy sector. In addition, we numerically confirm that the fluctuation theorem remains applicable in optical thermodynamics systems across all regimes, from positive temperature to negative ones. Our findings closely align with numerical simulations based on first-principles nonlinear wave equations. Our work seeks to deepen the understanding of irreversible non-equilibrium processes and statistical fluctuations in nonlinear many-body photonic systems which will enhance our grasp of collective phenomena of photons and foster a fruitful intersection between optics and statistical physics.

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