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Nonlinear self-action of ultrashort guided exciton-polariton pulses in dielectric slab coupled to 2D semiconductor

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posted on 2023-01-12, 15:37 authored by F. A. Benimetskiy, A. Yulin, A. O. Mikhin, V. Kravtsov, I. Iorsh, M. S. Skolnick, I. A. Shelykh, D. N. Krizhanovskii, A. Samusev
Recently reported large values of exciton-polariton nonlinearity of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers coupled to optically resonant structures approach the values characteristic for GaAs-based systems in the regime of strong light-matter coupling. Contrary to the latter, TMD-based polaritonic devices remain operational at ambient conditions and therefore have greater potential for practical nanophotonic applications. Here we present the study of the nonlinear properties of Ta$_2$O$_5$ slab waveguide coupled to a WSe$_2$ monolayer. We first confirm that the hybridization between waveguide photon mode and a 2D semiconductor exciton resonance gives rise to the formation of exciton-polaritons with Rabi splitting of 36 meV. By measuring transmission of ultrashort optical pulses through this TMD-based polaritonic waveguide, we demonstrate for the first time the strong nonlinear dependence of the output spectrum on the input pulse energy. Our theoretical model provides semi-quantitative agreement with experiment and gives insights into the dominating microscopic processes which determine the nonlinear pulse self-action: Coulomb inter-particle interaction and scattering to incoherent excitonic reservoir. We also confirm that at intermediate pump energies the system supports quasi-stationary solitonic regime of pulse propagation. Our results are essential for the development of nonlinear on-chip polaritonic devices based of 2D semiconductors.

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