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Nonreciprocal Metasurface with Space-Time Phase Modulation
preprintposted on 2023-02-14, 21:41 authored by Xuexue Guo, Yimin Ding, Yao Duan, Xingjie Ni
Creating materials with time-variant properties is critical for breaking reciprocity that imposes fundamental limitations to wave propagation. However, it is challenging to realize efficient and ultrafast temporal modulation in a photonic system. Here, leveraging both spatial and temporal phase manipulation offered by an ultrathin nonlinear metasurface, we experimentally demonstrated nonreciprocal light reflection at wavelengths around 860 nm. The metasurface, with traveling-wave modulation upon nonlinear Kerr building blocks, creates spatial phase gradient and multi-terahertz temporal phase wobbling, which leads to unidirectional photonic transitions in both momentum and energy spaces. We observed completely asymmetric reflections in forward and backward light propagations within a sub-wavelength interaction length of 150 nm. Our approach pointed out a potential means for creating miniaturized and integratable nonreciprocal optical components.