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Observation of Square-Root Higher-Order Topological States in Photonic Waveguide Arrays
preprintposted on 2023-01-12, 13:55 authored by Juan Kang, Tao Liu, Mou Yan, Dandan Yang, Xiongjian Huang, Ruishan Wei, Jianrong Qiu, Guoping Dong, Zhongmin Yang, Franco Nori
Recently, high-order topological insulators (HOTIs), accompanied by topologically nontrivial boundary states with codimension larger than one, have been extensively explored because of unconventional bulk-boundary correspondences. As a novel type of HOTIs, very recent works have explored the square-root HOTIs, where the topological nontrivial nature of bulk bands stems from the square of the Hamiltonian. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate 2D square-root HOTIs in photonic waveguide arrays written in glass using femtosecond laser direct-write techniques. Edge and corner states are clearly observed through visible light spectra. The dynamical evolutions of topological boundary states are experimentally demonstrated, which further verify the existence of in-gap edge and corner states. The robustness of these edge and corner states is revealed by introducing defects and disorders into the bulk structures. Our studies provide an extended platform for realizing light manipulation and stable photonic devices.