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Observation of topologically distinct corner states in "bearded" photonic Kagome lattices
preprintposted on 2023-10-07, 16:00 authored by Limin Song, Domenico Bongiovanni, Zhichan Hu, Ziteng Wang, Shiqi Xia, Liqin Tang, Daohong Song, Roberto Morandotti, Zhigang Chen
Kagome lattices represent an archetype of intriguing physics, attracting a great deal of interest in different branches of natural sciences, recently in the context of topological crystalline insulators. Here, we demonstrate two distinct classes of corner states in breathing Kagome lattices (BKLs) with "bearded" edge truncation, unveiling their topological origin. The in-phase corner states are found to exist only in the topologically nontrivial regime, characterized by a nonzero bulk polarization. In contrast, the out-of-phase corner states appear in both topologically trivial and nontrivial regimes, either as bound states in the continuum or as in-gap states depending on the lattice dimerization conditions. Furthermore, the out-of-phase corner states are highly localized, akin to flat-band compact localized states, and they manifest both real- and momentum-space topology. Experimentally, we observe both types of corner states in laser-written photonic bearded-edge BKLs, corroborated by numerical simulations. Our results not only deepen the current understanding of topological corner modes in BKLs, but also provide new insight into their physical origins, which may be applied to other topological BKL platforms beyond optics.