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On the intensity of focused waves near turning points
preprintposted on 2023-02-01, 17:01 authored by N. A. Lopez, E. Kur, D. J. Strozzi
A wave near an isolated turning point is typically assumed to have an Airy function profile with respect to the separation distance. This description is incomplete, however, and is insufficient to describe the behavior of more realistic wavefields that are not simple plane waves. Asymptotic matching to a prescribed incoming wavefield generically introduces a phasefront curvature term that changes the characteristic wave behavior from the Airy function to that of the hyperbolic umbilic function. This function, which is one of the seven classic 'elementary' functions from catastrophe theory along with the Airy function, can be understood intuitively as the solution for a linearly focused Gaussian beam propagating in a linearly varying density profile, as we show. The morphology of the caustic lines that govern the intensity maxima of the diffraction pattern as one alters the density lengthscale of the plasma, the focal length of the incident beam, and also the injection angle of the incident beam are presented in detail. This morphology includes a Goos-H\"anchen shift and focal shift at oblique incidence that do not appear in a reduced ray-based description of the caustic. The enhancement of the intensity swelling factor for a focused wave compared to the typical Airy solution is highlighted, and the impact of finite lens aperture is discussed. Collisional damping and finite beam waist are included in the model and appear as complex components to the arguments of the hyperbolic umbilic function. The observations presented here on the behavior of waves near turning points should aid the development of improved reduced wave models to be used, for example, in designing modern nuclear fusion experiments.