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One-dimensional ghost imaging with an electron microscope: a route towards ghost imaging with inelastically scattered electrons
preprintposted on 2023-06-08, 12:45 authored by E. Rotunno, S. Gargiulo, G. M. Vanacore, C. Mechel, A. Tavabi, R. E Dunin Borkowski, F. Carbone, I. Maidan, M. Zanfrognini, S. Frabboni, T. Guner, E. Karimi, I. Kaminer, V. Grillo
In quantum mechanics, entanglement and correlations are not just a mere sporadic curiosity, but rather common phenomena at the basis of an interacting quantum system. In electron microscopy, such concepts have not been extensively explored yet in all their implications; in particular, inelastic scattering can be reanalyzed in terms of correlation between the electron beam and the sample. While classical inelastic scattering simply implies loss of coherence in the electron beam, performing a joint measurement on the electron beam and the sample excitation could restore the coherence and the lost information. Here, we propose to exploit joint measurement in electron microscopy for a surprising and counter-intuitive application of the concept of ghost imaging. Ghost imaging, first proposed in quantum photonics, can be applied partially in electron microscopy by performing joint measurement between the portion of the transmitted electron beam and a photon emitted from the sample reaching a bucket detector. This would permit us to form a one-dimensional virtual image of an object that even has not interacted with the electron beam directly. This technique is extremely promising for low-dose imaging that requires the minimization of radiation exposure for electron-sensitive materials, because the object interacts with other form of waves, e.g., photons/surface plasmon polaritons, and not the electron beam. We demonstrate this concept theoretically for any inelastic electron-sample interaction in which the electron excites a single quantum of a collective mode, such as a photon, plasmon, phonon, magnon, or any optical polariton.