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Optimization of photonic crystal nanocavities based on deep learning

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posted on 2023-11-30, 06:10 authored by Takashi Asano, Susumu Noda
An approach to optimizing the Q factors of two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D-PC) nanocavities based on deep learning is proposed and demonstrated. We prepare a dataset consisting of 1000 nanocavities generated by randomly displacing the positions of many air holes of a base nanocavity and their Q factors calculated by a first-principle method. We train a four-layer neural network including a convolutional layer to recognize the relationship between the air holes' displacements and the Q factors using the prepared dataset. After the training, the neural network becomes able to estimate the Q factors from the air holes' displacements with an error of 13% in standard deviation. Crucially, the trained neural network can estimate the gradient of the Q factor with respect to the air holes' displacements very quickly based on back-propagation. A nanocavity structure with an extremely high Q factor of 1.58 x 10^9 is successfully obtained by optimizing the positions of 50 air holes over ~10^6 iterations, having taken advantage of the very fast evaluation of the gradient in high-dimensional parameter space. The obtained Q factor is more than one order of magnitude higher than that of the base cavity and more than twice that of the highest Q factors reported so far for cavities with similar modal volumes. This approach can optimize 2D-PC structures over a parameter space of a size unfeasibly large for previous optimization methods based solely on direct calculations. We believe this approach is also useful for improving other optical characteristics.



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