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Optimized Laser Models with Heisenberg-Limited Coherence and Sub-Poissonian Beam Photon Statistics
preprintposted on 2023-01-12, 16:09 authored by L. A. Ostrowski, T. J. Baker, S. N. Saadatmand, H. M. Wiseman
Recently it has been shown that it is possible for a laser to produce a stationary beam with a coherence (quantified as the mean photon number at spectral peak) which scales as the fourth power of the mean number of excitations stored within the laser, this being quadratically larger than the standard or Schawlow-Townes limit . Moreover, this was analytically proven to be the ultimate quantum limit (Heisenberg limit) scaling under defining conditions for CW lasers, plus a strong assumption about the properties of the output beam. In Ref. , we show that the latter can be replaced by a weaker assumption, which allows for highly sub-Poissonian output beams, without changing the upper bound scaling or its achievability. In this Paper, we provide details of the calculations in Ref. , and introduce three new families of laser models which may be considered as generalizations of those presented in that work. Each of these families of laser models is parameterized by a real number, $p$, with $p=4$ corresponding to the original models. The parameter space of these laser families is numerically investigated in detail, where we explore the influence of these parameters on both the coherence and photon statistics of the laser beams. Two distinct regimes for the coherence may be identified based on the choice of $p$, where for $p>3$, each family of models exhibits Heisenberg-limited beam coherence, while for $p<3$, the Heisenberg limit is no longer attained. Moreover, in the former regime, we derive formulae for the beam coherence of each of these three laser families which agree with the numerics. We find that the optimal parameter is in fact $p\approx4.15$, not $p=4$.