# Optomechanical sideband asymmetry explained by stochastic electrodynamics

preprint

posted on 2023-01-10, 02:56 authored by Lukas Novotny, Martin Frimmer, Andrei Militaru, Andreas Norrman, Oriol Romero-Isart, Patrick MaurerWithin the framework of stochastic electrodynamics we derive the noise spectrum of a laser beam reflected from a suspended mirror. The electromagnetic field follows Maxwell's equations and is described by a deterministic part that accounts for the laser field and a stochastic part that accounts for thermal and zero-point background fluctuations.Likewise, the mirror motion satisfies Newton's equation of motion and is composed of deterministic and stochastic parts, similar to a Langevin equation. We consider a photodetector that records the power of the field reflected from the mirror interfering with a frequency-shifted reference beam (heterodyne interferometry). We theoretically show that the power spectral density of the photodetector signal is composed of four parts: (i) a deterministic term with beat notes, (ii) shot noise, (iii) the actual heterodyne signal of the mirror motion and (iv) a cross term resulting from the correlation between measurement noise (shot noise) and backaction noise (radiation pressure shot noise). The latter gives rise to the Raman sideband asymmetry observed with ultracold atoms, cavity optomechanics and with levitated nanoparticles. Our classical theory fully reproduces experimental observations and agrees with the results obtained by a quantum theoretical treatment.