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Painting with Hue, Saturation, and Brightness Control by Nanoscale 3D Printing

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posted on 2023-11-30, 20:48 authored by Hao Wang, Qifeng Ruan, Hongtao Wang, Soroosh Daqiqeh Rezaei, Kevin T. P. Lim, Hailong Liu, Wang Zhang, Jonathan Trisno, John You En Chan, Joel K. W. Yang
Varying only the in-plane or out-of-plane dimensions of nanostructures produces a wide range of colourful elements in metasurfaces and thin films. However, achieving shades of grey and control of colour saturation remains challenging. Here, we introduce a hybrid approach to colour generation based on the tuning of nanostructure geometry in all three dimensions. Through two-photon polymerization lithography, we systematically investigated colour generation from the simple single nanopillar geometry made of low-refractive-index material; realizing grayscale and full colour palettes with control of hue, saturation, brightness through tuning of height, diameter, and periodicity of nanopillars. Arbitrary colourful and grayscale images were painted by mapping desired prints to precisely controllable parameters during 3D printing. We extend our understanding of the scattering properties of the low-refractive-index nanopillar to demonstrate grayscale inversion and colour desaturation, with steganography at the level of single nanopillars.

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