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Phase incoherent photonic molecules in V-shaped mode-locked VECSELs
preprintposted on 2023-11-30, 19:52 authored by Jan Hausen, Stefan Meineck, Julien Javaloyes, Svetlana V. Gurevich, Kathy Lüdge
Passively mode-locked vertical external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers (VECSELs) composed of a gain chip and a semiconductor saturable absorber have been drawing much attention due to their excellent performance figures. In this work we investigate how localized structures and incoherent, non-locally bound, pulse molecules emerge in a long cavity VECSELs using a V-shaped cavity geometry. We show that these states are bistable with the laser off state and that they are individually addressable. Using a model based upon delay differential equations, we demonstrate that pulse clusters result from the cavity geometry and from the non-local coupling with the gain medium; this leads to locally independent, yet globally bound phase, incoherent photonic molecules. Using a multiple time-scale analysis, we derive an amplitude equation for the field that allows us to predict analytically the distance between the elements of a cluster.