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# Phase retrieval with complexity guidance

preprint

posted on 2023-11-30, 06:18 authored by Mansi Butola, Sunaina, Kedar KhareIterative phase retrieval methods based on the Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) or Fienup algorithm require a large number of iterations to converge to a meaningful solution. For complex-valued or phase objects, these approaches also suffer from stagnation problems where the solution does not change much from iteration to iteration but the resultant solution shows artifacts such as presence of a twin. We introduce a complexity parameter $\zeta$ that can be computed directly from the Fourier magnitude data and provides a measure of fluctuations in the desired phase retrieval solution. It is observed that when initiated with a uniformly random phase map, the complexity of the Fienup solution containing stagnation artifacts stabilizes at a numerical value that is much higher than $\zeta$. We propose a modified Fienup algorithm that uses a controlled sparsity enhancing step such that in every iteration the complexity of the resulting solution is explicitly made close to $\zeta$. This approach which we refer to as complexity guided phase retrieval (CGPR) is seen to significantly reduce the number of phase retrieval iterations required for convergence to a meaningful solution and automatically addresses the stagnation problems. The CGPR methodology can enable new applications of iterative phase retrieval that are considered practically difficult due to large number of iterations required for a reliable phase recovery.