Positronium density measurements using polaritonic effects
preprintposted on 2023-01-10, 03:03 authored by Erika Cortese, David B. Cassidy, Simone De Liberato
Recent experimental advances in Positronium (Ps) physics have made it possible to produce dense Ps ensembles in which Ps-Ps interactions may occur, leading to the production of Ps$_2$ molecules and paving the way to the realization of a Ps Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC). In order to achieve this latter goal it would be advantageous to develop new methods to measure Ps densities in real-time. Here we describe a possible approach to do this using polaritonic methods: using realistic experimental parameters we demonstrate that a dense Ps gas can be strongly coupled to the photonic field of a distributed Bragg reflector microcavity. In this strongly coupled regime, the optical spectrum of the system is composed of two hybrid positronium-polariton resonances separated by the vacuum Rabi splitting, which is proportional to the square root of the Ps density. Given that polaritons can be created on a sub-cycle timescale, a spectroscopic measurement of the vacuum Rabi splitting could be used as an ultra-fast Ps density measurement in regimes relevant to Ps BEC formation. Moreover, we show how positronium-polaritons could potentially enter the ultrastrong light-matter coupling regime, introducing a radically novel platform to explore its non-perturbative phenomenology.