Quantum Microscopy of Cancer Cells at the Heisenberg Limit
preprintposted on 2023-03-11, 17:00 authored by Zhe He, Yide Zhang, Xin Tong, Lei Li, Lihong V. Wang
Entangled biphoton sources exhibit nonclassical characteristics and have been applied to novel imaging techniques such as ghost imaging, quantum holography, and quantum optical coherence tomography. The development of wide-field quantum imaging to date has been hindered by low spatial resolutions, speeds, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). Here, we present quantum microscopy by coincidence (QMC) with balanced pathlengths, which enables super-resolution imaging at the Heisenberg limit with substantially higher speeds and CNRs than existing wide-field quantum imaging methods. QMC benefits from a configuration with balanced pathlengths, where a pair of entangled photons traversing symmetric paths with balanced optical pathlengths in two arms behave like a single photon with half the wavelength, leading to 2-fold resolution improvement. Concurrently, QMC resists stray light up to 155 times stronger than classical signals. The low intensity and entanglement features of biphotons in QMC promise nondestructive bioimaging. QMC advances quantum imaging to the microscopic level with significant improvements in speed and CNR toward bioimaging of cancer cells. We experimentally and theoretically prove that the configuration with balanced pathlengths illuminates an avenue for quantum-enhanced coincidence imaging at the Heisenberg limit.