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Quantum plasmon enhanced nonlinear wave mixing in graphene nanoflakes

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posted on 2023-01-11, 22:04 authored by Hanying Deng, Changming Huang, Yingji He, Fangwei Ye
A distant-neighbor quantum-mechanical method is used to study the nonlinear optical wave mixing in graphene nanoflakes (GNFs), including sum- and difference-frequency generation, as well as four-wave mixing. Our analysis shows that molecular-scale GNFs support quantum plasmons in the visible spectrum region, and significant enhancement of nonlinear optical wave mixing is achieved. Specifically, the second- and third-order wave-mixing polarizabilities of GNFs are dramatically enhanced, provided that one (or more) of the input or output frequencies coincide with a quantum plasmon resonance. Moreover, by embedding a cavity into hexagonal GNFs, we show that one can break the structural inversion symmetry and enable otherwise forbidden second-order wave mixing, which is found to be enhanced by the quantum plasmon resonance too. This study reveals that the molecular-sized graphene could be used in the quantum regime for nanoscale nonlinear optical devices and ultrasensitive molecular sensors.

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