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Refraction efficiency of Huygens' and bianisotropic terahertz metasurfaces
preprintposted on 2023-11-30, 06:43 authored by Michael A. Cole, Aristeidis Lamprianidis, Ilya V. Shadrivov, David A. Powell
Metasurfaces are an enabling technology for complex wave manipulation functions, including in the terahertz frequency range, where they are expected to advance security, imaging, sensing, and communications technology. For operation in transmission, Huygens' metasurfaces are commonly used, since their good impedance match to the surrounding media minimizes reflections and maximizes transmission. Recent theoretical work has shown that Huygens' metasurfaces are non-optimal, particularly for large angles of refraction, and that to eliminate reflections and spurious diffracted beams it is necessary to use a bianisotropic metasurface. However, it remains to be demonstrated how significant the efficiency improvement is when using bianisotropic metasurfaces, considering all the non-ideal features that arise when implementing the metasurface design with real meta-atoms. Here we compare concrete terahertz metasurface designs based on the Huygens' and Omega-type bianisotropic approaches, demonstrating anomalous refraction angles for 55 degrees, and 70 degrees. We show that for the lower angle of 55 degrees, there is no significant improvement when using the bianisotropic design, whereas for refraction at 70 degrees the bianisotropic design shows much higher efficiency and fidelity of refraction into the designed direction. We also demonstrate the strong perturbations caused by near-field interaction, both between and within cells, which we compensate using numerical optimization.