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Resonant Electro-optic Imaging for Microscopy at Nanosecond Resolution
preprintposted on 2023-01-11, 22:36 authored by Adam J. Bowman, Mark A. Kasevich
We demonstrate an electro-optic wide-field method to enable fluorescence lifetime microscopy (FLIM) with high throughput and single-molecule sensitivity. Resonantly driven Pockels cells are used to efficiently gate images at 39 MHz, allowing fluorescence lifetime to be captured on standard camera sensors. Lifetime imaging of single molecules is enabled in wide-field with exposure times of less than 100 milliseconds. This capability allows combination of wide-field FLIM with single-molecule super-resolution localization microscopy. Fast single-molecule dynamics such as FRET and molecular binding events are captured from wide-field images without prior spatial knowledge. A lifetime sensitivity of 1.9 times the photon shot-noise limit is achieved, and high throughput is shown by acquiring wide-field FLIM images with millisecond exposure and $>10^8$ photons per frame. Resonant electro-optic FLIM allows lifetime contrast in any wide-field microscopy method.