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Resonant Semiconductor Metasurfaces for Generating Complex Quantum States
preprintposted on 2023-01-12, 15:31 authored by Tomás Santiago-Cruz, Sylvain D. Gennaro, Oleg Mitrofanov, Sadhvikas Addamane, John Reno, Igal Brener, Maria V. Chekhova
Quantum state engineering, the cornerstone of quantum photonic technologies, mainly relies on spontaneous parametric down-conversion and four-wave mixing, where one or two pump photons decay into a photon pair. Both these nonlinear effects require momentum conservation (i.e., phase-matching) for the participating photons, which strongly limits the versatility of the resulting quantum states. Nonlinear metasurfaces, due to their subwavelength thickness, relax this constraint and extend the boundaries of quantum state engineering. Here, we generate entangled photons via spontaneous parametric down-conversion in semiconductor metasurfaces with high-quality resonances. By enhancing the quantum vacuum field, our metasurfaces boost the emission of photon pairs within narrow resonance bands at multiple selected wavelengths. Due to the relaxed momentum conservation, the same resonances support photon pair generation from pump photons of practically any energy. This enables the generation of complex frequency-multiplexed quantum states, in particular cluster states. Our results demonstrate the multifunctional use of metasurfaces for quantum state engineering.