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Scalable photonic integrated circuits for programmable control of atomic systems
preprintposted on 2023-06-08, 12:58 authored by Adrian J Menssen, Artur Hermans, Ian Christen, Thomas Propson, Chao Li, Andrew J Leenheer, Matthew Zimmermann, Mark Dong, Hugo Larocque, Hamza Raniwala, Gerald Gilbert, Matt Eichenfield, Dirk R Englund
Advances in laser technology have driven discoveries in atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics and emerging applications, from quantum computers with cold atoms or ions, to quantum networks with solid-state color centers. This progress is motivating the development of a new generation of "programmable optical control" systems, characterized by criteria (C1) visible (VIS) and near-infrared (IR) wavelength operation, (C2) large channel counts extensible beyond 1000s of individually addressable atoms, (C3) high intensity modulation extinction and (C4) repeatability compatible with low gate errors, and (C5) fast switching times. Here, we address these challenges by introducing an atom control architecture based on VIS-IR photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology. Based on a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication process, this Atom-control PIC (APIC) technology meets the system requirements (C1)-(C5). As a proof of concept, we demonstrate a 16-channel silicon nitride based APIC with (5.8$\pm$0.4) ns response times and -30 dB extinction ratio at a wavelength of 780 nm. This work demonstrates the suitability of PIC technology for quantum control, opening a path towards scalable quantum information processing based on optically-programmable atomic systems.